Factors associated with responsive feeding among infants 3 months old in Northern Taiwan

MS Tzu-Ling Chen, MS Li-Yin  Chien

1Department of Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan,

2Institute of Community Health Care, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan


Introduction: With the global trend of increasing obesity among children, healthy feeding pattern is being emphasized. Responsive feeding refers to a reciprocal relationship between an infant and caregiver that is characterized by the infant communicating feelings of hunger and satiety through cues, followed by an immediate response from the caregiver by the provision of appropriate food in a supportive manner in an appropriate feeding environment.

Objective: The study aimed to describe responsive feeding among infants 3 months of age and examine factors associated with responsive feeding.

Methods: This study applied a cohort design. A total of 800 second-trimester pregnant women were recruited from March 2015 to May 2017 and followed at 1 and 3 months postpartum. Responsive feeding at 3 months were measured by a scale of 10 likert-scale items with a possible score range of 0-40 and higher score indicating higher level of responsive feeding. Related factors included socio-demographics, feeding method (exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding, and formula feeding), infant growth, and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms. Infant growth was categorized into 4 groups based on weight-for-height Z scores from birth through < 3 months; they are no change, increase but in normal range, increase to overweight, and decrease.

Finding: Mean responsive feeding scores were 28.96±5.74.”I am depressed if the baby can not finish the prepared amount” and” I only feed the baby at the fixed time” were the two items with the lowest score. Multiple liner regression revealed that postpartum depressive symptom, primipara, maternal age >=35 years, and decreased


Ms. Chen is now a PhD student in Department of Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan. She also works as the head nurse of a busy clinic located in Bali District of New Taipei City. Her responsibility at the clinic includes providing patient education, health promotion and prevention, training new nurses, and nursing administration. Bali is a remote town in the northwestern part of New Taipei City. Her interest is in primary health care, health promotion, and family care in township.